Carte Nouvelle du Mexique du Texas et d'une Partie des Etats Limitrophes.
A rare and very important map of the American South West, including Southern California, Mexico and Texas. Although this is a later edition of Rue’s landmark map, initially published in 1834, this state is of great significance because Texas was added to the map’s title. This state of the map is also noteworthy because of the cartographic additions such as the Texan railroads as well as many new towns and a new depiction of the Great Basin as published by John Arrowsmith in his famous map of British North America of 1837.
The map is also adorned with two inset maps of the Mexican East Coast near Vera Cruz, and the Yucatan including parts of Central America.
Of interest is the notations found throughout the map that provide geographic and political information. For example, the map delineates the limits of the Washington Treaty of 1819, also referred to as the Adams-Onis Treaty, in the Oregon Territory at the 42nd parallel. The Adams-Onis Treaty was an agreement between the United States and Spain where the latter ceded Florida and established a boundary West of the Mississippi that allowed the United States access to the Pacific. It should noted, however, that the area of the Pacific Northwest on Brue’s map is referred to as New Albion, a direct reference to the competing English claims to the Pacific Northwest region following the travels of Sir Francis Drake in 1579.
Yet it is the reference to Texas in the Adams-Onis Treaty that is of particular significance to this map. With this agreement, the United States relinquished it’s claims to Texas and upon the Treaty’s ratification in 1821, Texas was transferred from Spain to Mexico. However, the Mexican Province of Texas eventually revolted and declared itself the Republic of Texas in 1836 with the United States recognizing it in1837. It is thus in this political context that renders Brue’s addition of Texas to the map’s title important. Not only had Spain and Mexico refused to recognize Texas independence, but Great Britain was also reluctant to follow in the footsteps of the United States. France, however, began the process of official recognition of the new Republic of Texas as early as September 1839, less than a year prior to the publishing of this map. Thus the political issues relating to international recognition of Texas was an element that was of concern as to how Texas was to be depicted cartographically.
The map is also of interest in that it delineates the areas populated by different native communities. For example the districts of the Mandans, the Osages and the Ozarks are depicted as are areas under Sioux and Pawnee influence. Furthermore, it has been argued that substantial explorations of the area from the Rocky Mountains in the West to British North America in the North and Mexico in the South, as well as from the Missouri River all the way to the Pacific had been undertaken by individuals involved in the fur trade, such as Jedidiah Smith, between 1823 and 1840. Maps by Brue and Arrowsmith were amongst the very earliest to integrate this new cartographic information of the American West. In fact, it has been argued that Brue’s maps “ were among the first commercial cartographic productions in either Europe or the United States to be heavily dependent upon geographical information from the American fur trade in the Rockies and Plains.”
(Sources: Wyckoff, W., Dilaver, L. The Mountainous West: Explorations in Historical Geography.)
* The map is currently being sold in conjunction with Neatline Antique Maps